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A Short Grammatical Summary

Spered ar yezh

An deiziad


Y10. Questions about dates

  1. Pegoulz ? when ?
  2. Peseurt deiz ? what day?

Y11. The seasons

  1. An Nevez-Amzer
  2. An Hañv
  3. An Diskar-Amzer
  4. Ar Goañv

Y12. The months and the year

  1. Genver
  2. C'Hwevrer
  3. Meurzh
  4. Ebrel
  5. Mae
  6. Even / Mezheven
  7. Gouere
  8. Eost
  9. GWengolo
  10. Here
  11. Du
  12. Kerzu

Y13. The days of the week

  1. al Lun
  2. ar Meurzh
  3. ar Merc'her
  4. ar Yaou
  5. ar GWener
  6. ar Sadorn
  7. ar Sul
Notice: Meurzh, Merc'her, Yaou, GWener, Sadorn correspond also, as you won't be surprised, respectively to the planets and to the following ten romans : Mars, Mercury, Jupiter, Venus and Saturn. In fact, It was the Romans who gave their calendar to the Bretons, as with most Europeans. Same with Lun and Sul come from Latin but Breton kept its own terms for the: Loar (moon) and Heol (sun).
The date When one answers pegoulz ... ?, is expressed by the form D'[The name of the day and its order] a viz [the name of the month].
Question : pegoulz ec'h echue ar brezel-bed diwezhañ ?
Answer : D'an eizh a viz Mae 1945 ec'h echue ar brezel en Europa.
If the question is in the form peseurt deiz...? one retracts the preposition da :
Question : peseurt deiz omp hiziv?
Answer : Ar meurzh pemp a viz Ebrel omp hiziv.
When one wants talk about Monday, Tuesday, ... next or last, one uses dilun, dimeurzh, dimerc'her, diryaou, digwener, disadorn, disul. It's the context which indicates if it is yesterday or the following day.

Y14. Time

In order to tell the time in Breton, one says the hour followed by the minutes that have past if it is less than 30 minutes ago, otherwise the following hour nemet and the numbers of minutes until then :
  • 1:10
    un eur dek
  • 2:23
    Pet eur eo ? div eur tri warn ugent eo
  • 3:53
    Pet eur eo ? peder eur nemet seizh eo
  • 8:40
    Pet eur eo ? nav eur nemet ugent eo
Particular cases :
  1. The quarter and the half hour:
    • 10:15
      Pet eur eo ? dek eur ha kard eo
    • 6:45
      Pet eur eo ? seizh eur nemet kard eo
    • 9:30
      Pet eur eo ? nav eur hanter eo
  2. Noon and midnight correspond respectively to Kreisteiz and hanternoz
Note that eur is feminine. One therefore uses the feminine form (without playing on words) div, teir, peder from daou, tri, pevar (See counting and kentel dek)
A Short Grammatical Summary
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· An deiziad